Glossary Annex II
The addition of a substance of concern to a reservoir. The uptake of
carbon containing substances, in particular carbon dioxide, is often
called (carbon) sequestration.
A region of an ocean where cold, typically nutrient-rich waters well up
from the deep ocean.
Urban heat island
The relative warmth of a city compared with surrounding rural areas,
associated with changes in runoff, effects on heat retention, and
changes in surface albedo.
Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)
Important class of organic chemical air pollutants that are volatile
at ambient air conditions. Other terms used to represent VOCs are
hydrocarbons (HCs), reactive organic gases (ROGs), and non-methane
volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs). NMVOCs are major contributors
(together with NO
and CO) to the formation of photochemical oxidants
such as ozone.
The propensity or predisposition to be adversely affected. Vulnerability
encompasses a variety of concepts and elements including sensitivity
or susceptibility to harm and lack of capacity to cope and adapt. See
also Contextual vulnerability and Outcome vulnerability.
A metric characterizing the vulnerability of a system. A climate
vulnerability index is typically derived by combining, with or without
weighting, several indicators assumed to represent vulnerability.
See Hydrological cycle.
Carbon gain by photosynthesis per unit of water lost by evapotranspiration.
It can be expressed on a short-term basis as the ratio of photosynthetic
carbon gain per unit transpirational water loss, or on a seasonal basis
as the ratio of net primary production or agricultural yield to the amount
of water used.
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Reflecting progress in science, this glossary entry differs in breadth and focus from the entry used in the Fourth Assessment Report and other IPCC reports.