1199
22
Africa
Coordinating Lead Authors:
Isabelle Niang (Senegal), Oliver C. Ruppel (Namibia)
Lead Authors:
Mohamed A. Abdrabo (Egypt), Ama Essel (Ghana), Christopher Lennard (South Africa),
Jonathan Padgham (USA), Penny Urquhart (South Africa)
Contributing Authors:
Ibidun Adelekan (Nigeria), Sally Archibald (South Africa), Michael Balinga (Cameroon),
Armineh Barkhordarian (Germany), Jane Battersby (South Africa), Eren Bilir (USA), Marshall Burke
(USA), Mohammed Chahed (Tunisia), Monalisa Chatterjee (USA/India), Chineke Theo Chidiezie
(Nigeria), Katrien Descheemaeker (Netherlands), Houria Djoudi (Algeria), Kristie L. Ebi (USA),
Papa Demba Fall (Senegal), Ricardo Fuentes (Mexico), Rebecca Garland (South Africa), Fatou Gaye
(The Gambia), Karim Hilmi (Morocco), Emiloa Gbobaniyi (Nigeria), Patrick Gonzalez (USA),
Blane Harvey (UK), Mary Hayden (USA), Andreas Hemp (Germany), Guy Jobbins (UK),
Jennifer Johnson (USA), David Lobell (USA), Bruno Locatelli (France), Eva Ludi (UK), Lars Otto Naess
(UK), Mzime R. Ndebele-Murisa (Zimbabwe), Aminata Ndiaye (Senegal), Andrew Newsham (UK),
Sirra Njai (The Gambia), Johnson Nkem (Cameroon), Jane Mukarugwiza Olwoch (South Africa),
Pieter Pauw (Netherlands), Emilia Pramova (Bulgaria), Marie-Louise Rakotondrafara (Madagascar),
Clionadh Raleigh (Ireland), Debra Roberts (South Africa), Carla Roncoli (USA), Aissa Toure Sarr
(Senegal), Michael Henry Schleyer (South Africa), Lena Schulte-Uebbing (Germany), Roland Schulze
(South Africa), Hussen Seid (Ethiopia), Sheona Shackleton (South Africa), Mxolisi Shongwe
(South Africa), Dáithí Stone (Canada/South Africa/USA), David Thomas (UK), Okoro Ugochukwu
(Nigeria), Dike Victor (Nigeria), Katharine Vincent (South Africa), Koko Warner (Germany), Sidat Yaffa
(The Gambia)
Review Editors:
Pauline Dube (Botswana), Neil Leary (USA)
Volunteer Chapter Scientist:
Lena Schulte-Uebbing (Germany)
This chapter should be cited as:
Niang, I., O.C. Ruppel, M.A. Abdrabo, A. Essel, C. Lennard, J. Padgham, and P. Urquhart, 2014: Africa. In: Climate
Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part B: Regional Aspects. Contribution of Working Group
II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Barros, V.R., C.B. Field,
D.J. Dokken, M.D. Mastrandrea, K.J. Mach, T.E. Bilir, M. Chatterjee, K.L. Ebi, Y.O. Estrada, R.C. Genova, B. Girma,
E.S. Kissel, A.N. Levy, S. MacCracken, P.R. Mastrandrea, and L.L. White (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press,
Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, pp. 1199-1265.
22
1200
Executive Summary.......................................................................................................................................................... 1202
22.1. Introduction .......................................................................................................................................................... 1205
22.1.1. Structure of the Regions ................................................................................................................................................................. 1205
22.1.2. Major Conclusions from Previous Assessments .............................................................................................................................. 1205
22.1.2.1. Regional Special Report and Assessment Reports ........................................................................................................... 1205
22.1.2.2. Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation ......... 1205
22.2. Observed Climate Trends and Future Projections ................................................................................................. 1206
22.2.1. Temperature ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1206
22.2.1.1. Observed Trends .............................................................................................................................................................. 1206
22.2.1.2. Projected Trends .............................................................................................................................................................. 1206
22.2.2. Precipitation ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1209
22.2.2.1. Observed Changes .......................................................................................................................................................... 1209
22.2.2.2. Projected Changes ........................................................................................................................................................... 1210
22.2.3. Observed and Projected Changes in Extreme Temperature and Rainfall ......................................................................................... 1210
22.3. Vulnerability and Impacts ..................................................................................................................................... 1211
22.3.1. Socioeconomic and Environmental Context Influencing Vulnerability and Adaptive Capacity ........................................................ 1211
22.3.2. Ecosystems ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 1213
22.3.2.1. Terrestrial Ecosystems ..................................................................................................................................................... 1213
22.3.2.2. Freshwater Ecosystems .................................................................................................................................................... 1215
22.3.2.3. Coastal and Ocean Systems ............................................................................................................................................ 1216
22.3.3. Water Resources ............................................................................................................................................................................. 1216
22.3.4. Agriculture and Food Security ......................................................................................................................................................... 1218
22.3.4.1. Crops ............................................................................................................................................................................... 1218
22.3.4.2. Livestock ......................................................................................................................................................................... 1219
22.3.4.3. Agricultural Pests, Diseases, and Weeds .......................................................................................................................... 1220
22.3.4.4. Fisheries .......................................................................................................................................................................... 1220
22.3.4.5. Food Security ................................................................................................................................................................... 1221
22.3.5. Health ............................................................................................................................................................................................. 1221
22.3.5.1. Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................... 1221
22.3.5.2. Food- and Water-Borne Diseases ..................................................................................................................................... 1222
22.3.5.3. Nutrition .......................................................................................................................................................................... 1222
22.3.5.4. Vector-Borne Diseases and Other Climate-Sensitive Health Outcomes ............................................................................ 1222
22.3.6. Urbanization ................................................................................................................................................................................... 1224
22.4. Adaptation ............................................................................................................................................................ 1225
22.4.1. Introduction .................................................................................................................................................................................... 1225
Table of Contents
22
Africa Chapter 22
1201
22.4.2. Adaptation Needs, Gaps, and Adaptive Capacity ............................................................................................................................ 1226
22.4.3. Adaptation, Equity, and Sustainable Development ......................................................................................................................... 1226
22.4.4. Experiences in Building the Governance System for Adaptation, and Lessons Learned .................................................................. 1227
22.4.4.1. Introduction ..................................................................................................................................................................... 1227
22.4.4.2. Regional and National Adaptation Planning and Implementation .................................................................................. 1227
22.4.4.3. Institutional Frameworks for Adaptation ......................................................................................................................... 1228
22.4.4.4. Subnational Adaptation Governance ............................................................................................................................... 1228
22.4.4.5. Community-Based Adaptation and Local Institutions ...................................................................................................... 1229
22.4.4.6. Adaptation Decision Making and Monitoring ................................................................................................................. 1229
22.4.5. Experiences with Adaptation Measures in Africa and Lessons Learned .......................................................................................... 1229
22.4.5.1. Overview ......................................................................................................................................................................... 1229
22.4.5.2. Climate Risk Reduction, Risk Transfer, and Livelihood Diversification .............................................................................. 1230
Box 22-1. Experience with Index-Based Weather Insurance in Africa ........................................................................... 1231
22.4.5.3. Adaptation as a Participatory Learning Process ............................................................................................................... 1231
22.4.5.4. Knowledge Development and Sharing ............................................................................................................................ 1232
22.4.5.5. Communication, Education, and Capacity Development ................................................................................................. 1233
22.4.5.6. Ecosystem Services, Biodiversity, and Natural Resource Management ............................................................................ 1233
Box 22-2. African Success Story: Integrating Trees into Annual Cropping Systems ....................................................... 1233
22.4.5.7. Technological and Infrastructural Adaptation Responses ................................................................................................ 1234
22.4.5.8. Maladaptation Risks ........................................................................................................................................................ 1235
22.4.6. Barriers and Limits to Adaptation in Africa ..................................................................................................................................... 1236
22.5. Key Risks for Africa ............................................................................................................................................... 1238
22.6. Emerging Issues .................................................................................................................................................... 1238
22.6.1. Human Security .............................................................................................................................................................................. 1238
22.6.1.1. Violent Conflict ................................................................................................................................................................ 1239
22.6.1.2. Migration ........................................................................................................................................................................ 1239
22.6.2. Integrated Adaptation/Mitigation Approaches ............................................................................................................................... 1240
22.6.3. Biofuels and Land Use .................................................................................................................................................................... 1240
22.6.4. Climate Finance and Management ................................................................................................................................................. 1241
22.7. Research Gaps ...................................................................................................................................................... 1242
References ....................................................................................................................................................................... 1243
Frequently Asked Questions
22.1: How could climate change impact food security in Africa? ............................................................................................................. 1221
22.2: What role does climate change play with regard to violent conflict in Africa? ............................................................................... 1239
22
Chapter 22 Africa
1202
Executive Summary
Evidence of warming over land regions across Africa, consistent with anthropogenic climate change, has increased (high
confidence). Decadal analyses of temperatures strongly point to an increased warming trend across the continent over the last 50 to 100
years. {22.2.1.1}
M
ean annual temperature rise over Africa, relative to the late 20th century mean annual temperature, is likely to exceed 2°C in
the Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) A1B and A2 scenarios by the end of this century (medium confidence).
Warming
projections under medium scenarios indicate that extensive areas of Africa will exceed 2°C by the last 2 decades of this century relative to the
late 20th century mean annual temperature and all of Africa under high emission scenarios. Under a high Representative Concentration Pathway
(RCP), that exceedance could occur by mid-century across much of Africa and reach between 3°C and 6°C by the end of the century. It is likely
that land temperatures over Africa will rise faster than the global land average, particularly in the more arid regions, and that the rate of increase
in minimum temperatures will exceed that of maximum temperatures. {22.2.1.2}
A reduction in precipitation is likely over Northern Africa and the southwestern parts of South Africa by the end of the 21st
century under the SRES A1B and A2 scenarios (medium to high confidence).
Projected rainfall change over sub-Saharan Africa in the
mid- and late 21st century is uncertain. In regions of high or complex topography such as the Ethiopian Highlands, downscaled projections
indicate likely increases in rainfall and extreme rainfall by the end of the 21st century. {22.2.2.2, 22.2.3}
African ecosystems are already being affected by climate change, and future impacts are expected to be substantial (high
confidence). There is emerging evidence on shifting ranges of some species and ecosystems due to elevated carbon dioxide (CO
2
) and climate
change, beyond the effects of land use change and other non-climate stressors (high confidence). Ocean ecosystems, in particular coral reefs,
will be affected by ocean acidification and warming as well as changes in ocean upwellings, thus negatively affecting economic sectors such as
fisheries (medium confidence). {22.3.2, Table 22-3}
Climate change will amplify existing stress on water availability in Africa (high confidence). Water resources are subjected to high
hydro-climatic variability over space and time, and are a key constraint on the continent’s continued economic development. The impacts of
climate change will be superimposed onto already water-stressed catchments with complex land uses, engineered water systems, and a strong
historical sociopolitical and economic footprint. Strategies that integrate land and water management, and disaster risk reduction, within a
framework of emerging climate change risks would bolster resilient development in the face of projected impacts of climate change. {22.3.2.2,
22.3.3}
Climate change will interact with non-climate drivers and stressors to exacerbate vulnerability of agricultural systems, particularly
in semi-arid areas (high confidence). Increasing temperatures and changes in precipitation are very likely to reduce cereal crop productivity.
This will have strong adverse effects on food security. New evidence is also emerging that high-value perennial crops could also be adversely
affected by temperature rise (medium confidence). Pest, weed, and disease pressure on crops and livestock is expected to increase as a result
of climate change combined with other factors (low confidence). Moreover, new challenges to food security are emerging as a result of strong
urbanization trends on the continent and increasingly globalized food chains, which require better understanding of the multi-stressor context
of food and livelihood security in both urban and rural contexts in Africa. {22.3.4.3, 22.3.4.5}
Progress has been achieved on managing risks to food production from current climate variability and near-term climate change
but these will not be sufficient to address long-term impacts of climate change (high confidence).
Livelihood-based approaches for
managing risks to food production from multiple stressors, including rainfall variability, have increased substantially in Africa since the IPCC’s
Fourth Assessment Report (AR4). While these efforts can improve the resiliency of agricultural systems in Africa over the near term, current
adaptations will be insufficient for managing risks from long-term climate change, which will be variable across regions and farming system
types. Nonetheless, processes such as collaborative, participatory research that includes scientists and farmers, strengthening of communication
systems for anticipating and responding to climate risks, and increased flexibility in livelihood options, which serve to strengthen coping
strategies in agriculture for near-term risks from climate variability, provide potential pathways for strengthening adaptive capacities for climate
change. {22.4.5.4, 22.4.5.7, 22.4.6, 22.6.2}
22
Africa Chapter 22
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Climate change may increase the burden of a range of climate-relevant health outcomes (medium confidence). Climate change
is a multiplier of existing health vulnerabilities (high confidence), including insufficient access to safe water and improved
sanitation, food insecurity, and limited access to health care and education. {22.3.5.1}
Detection and attribution of trends is difficult
because of the complexity of disease transmission, with many drivers other than weather and climate, and short and often incomplete data
sets. Evidence is growing that highland areas, especially in East Africa, could experience increased malaria epidemics due to climate change
(
medium evidence, very high agreement). The strong seasonality of meningococcal meningitis and associations with weather and climate
variability suggest the disease burden could be negatively affected by climate change (medium evidence, high agreement). The frequency of
leishmaniasis epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa is changing, with spatial spread to peri-urban areas and to adjacent geographic regions, with
possible contributions from changing rainfall patterns (low confidence). Climate change is projected to increase the burden of malnutrition
(medium confidence), with the highest toll expected in children. {22.3.5.3}
In all regions of the continent, national governments are initiating governance systems for adaptation and responding to climate
change, but evolving institutional frameworks cannot yet effectively coordinate the range of adaptation initiatives being
implemented (high confidence).
Progress on national and subnational policies and strategies has initiated the mainstreaming of adaptation
into sectoral planning. {22.4.4} However, incomplete, under-resourced, and fragmented institutional frameworks and overall low levels of
adaptive capacity, especially competency at local government levels, to manage complex socio-ecological change translate into a largely ad
hoc and project-level approach, which is often donor driven. {22.4.2, 22.4.4.3-4} Overall adaptive capacity is considered to be low. {22.4.2}
Disaster risk reduction, social protection, technological and infrastructural adaptation, ecosystem-based approaches, and livelihood diversification
are reducing vulnerability, but largely in isolated initiatives. {22.4.5} Most adaptations remain autonomous and reactive to short-term motivations.
{22.4.3, 22.4.4.5}
Conservation agriculture provides a viable means for strengthening resilience in agroecosystems and livelihoods that also advance
adaptation goals (high confidence). A wide array of conservation agriculture practices, including agroforestry and farmer-managed natural
tree regeneration, conservation tillage, contouring and terracing, and mulching, are being increasingly adopted in Africa. These practices
strengthen resilience of the land base to extreme events and broaden sources of livelihoods, both of which have strongly positive implications
for climate risk management and adaptation. Moreover, conservation agriculture has direct adaptation-mitigation co-benefits. Addressing
constraints to broader adoption of these practices, such as land tenure/usufruct stability, access to peer-to-peer learning, gender-oriented
extension and credit and markets, as well as identification of perverse policy incentives, would help to enable larger scale transformation of
agricultural landscapes. {22.4.5.6, 22.4.5.7, 22.4.6, 22.6.2}
Despite implementation limitations, Africa’s adaptation experiences nonetheless highlight valuable lessons for enhancing and
scaling up the adaptation response, including principles for good practice and integrated approaches to adaptation (high
confidence).
Five common principles for adaptation and building adaptive capacity can be distilled: (1) supporting autonomous adaptation
through a policy that recognizes the multiple-stressor nature of vulnerable livelihoods; (2) increasing attention to the cultural, ethical, and
rights considerations of adaptation by increasing the participation of women, youth, and poor and vulnerable people in adaptation policy and
implementation; (3) combining “soft path” options and flexible and iterative learning approaches with technological and infrastructural
approaches and blending scientific, local, and indigenous knowledge when developing adaptation strategies; (4) focusing on building resilience
and implementing low-regrets adaptation with development synergies, in the face of future climate and socioeconomic uncertainties; and (5)
building adaptive management and social and institutional learning into adaptation processes at all levels. {22.4} Ecosystem-based approaches
and pro-poor integrated adaptation-mitigation initiatives hold promise for a more sustainable and system-oriented approach to adaptation, as
does promoting equity goals, key for future resilience, through emphasizing gender aspects and highly vulnerable groups such as children.
{22.4.2, 22.4.5.6, 22.6.2, Table 22-5}
Strengthened interlinkages between adaptation and development pathways and a focus on building resilience would help to
counter the current adaptation deficit and reduce future maladaptation risks (high confidence). {22.4.3}
Development strategies are
currently not able to counter current climate risks, as highlighted by the impacts of recent extreme events; national policies that disregard
cultural, traditional, and context-specific factors can act as barriers to local adaptation; and there is increased knowledge of maladaptation risks
from narrowly conceived development interventions and sectoral adaptation strategies that decrease resilience in other sectors or ecosystems.
22
Chapter 22 Africa
1204
{22.4.4, 22.4.6} Given multiple uncertainties in the African context, successful adaptation will depend on building resilience. {22.4-6} Options for
pro-poor adaptation/resilient livelihoods include improved social protection, social services, and safety nets; better water and land governance
and tenure security over land and vital assets; enhanced water storage, water harvesting, and post-harvest services; strengthened civil society
and greater involvement in planning; and more attention to urban and peri-urban areas heavily affected by migration of poor people. {22.4.2,
22.4.4-6}
Growing understanding of the multiple interlinked constraints on increasing adaptive capacity is beginning to indicate potential
limits to adaptation in Africa (medium confidence). Climate change combined with other external changes (environmental, social, political,
technological) may overwhelm the ability of people to cope and adapt, especially if the root causes of poverty and vulnerability are not addressed.
Evidence is growing for the effectiveness of flexible and diverse development systems that are designed to reduce vulnerability, spread risk, and
build adaptive capacity. These points indicate the benefits of new development trajectories that place climate resilience, ecosystem stability,
equity, and justice at the center of development efforts. {22.4.6}
There is increased evidence of the significant financial resources, technological support, and investment in institutional and
capacity development needed to address climate risk, build adaptive capacity, and implement robust adaptation strategies (high
confidence).
Funding and technology transfer and support is needed to both address Africa’s current adaptation deficit and to protect rural
and urban livelihoods, societies, and economies from climate change impacts at different local scales. {22.4, 22.6.4} Strengthening institutional
capacities and governance mechanisms to enhance the ability of national governments and scientific institutions in Africa to absorb and
effectively manage large amounts of funds allocated for adaptation will help to ensure the effectiveness of adaptation initiatives (medium
confidence). {22.6.4}
Climate change and climate variability have the potential to exacerbate or multiply existing threats to human security including
food, health, and economic insecurity, all being of particular concern for Africa (medium confidence). {22.6.1} Many of these
threats are known drivers of conflict (high confidence). Causality between climate change and violent conflict is difficult to establish owing to
the presence of these and other interconnected causes, including country-specific sociopolitical, economic, and cultural factors. For example, the
degradation of natural resources as a result of both overexploitation and climate change will contribute to increased conflicts over the distribution
of these resources. {22.6.1.1} Many of the interacting social, demographic, and economic drivers of observed urbanization and migration in
Africa are sensitive to climate change impacts. {22.6.1.2}
A wide range of data and research gaps constrain decision making in processes to reduce vulnerability, build resilience, and plan
and implement adaptation strategies at different levels in Africa (high confidence). Overarching data and research gaps identified
include data management and monitoring of climate parameters and development of climate change scenarios; monitoring systems to address
climate change impacts in the different sectors; research and improved methodologies to assess and quantify the impact of climate change on
different sectors and systems; and socioeconomic consequences of the loss of ecosystems, of economic activities, of certain mitigation choices
such as biofuels, and of adaptation strategies. {22.7}
Of nine climate-related key regional risks identified for Africa, eight pose medium or higher risk even with highly adapted systems,
while only one key risk assessed can be potentially reduced with high adaptation to below a medium risk level, for the end of
the 21st century under 2°C global mean temperature increase above preindustrial levels (medium confidence).
Key regional risks
relating to shifts in biome distribution, loss of coral reefs, reduced crop productivity, adverse effects on livestock, vector- and water-borne
diseases, undernutrition, and migration are assessed as either medium or high for the present under current adaptation, reflecting Africa’s
existing adaptation deficit. {22.3.1-2, 22.3.4-5, 22.6.1.2} The assessment of significant residual impacts in a 2°C world at the end of the 21st
century suggests that, even under high levels of adaptation, there could be very high levels of risk for Africa. At a global mean temperature
increase of 4°C, risks for Africa’s food security (see key risks on livestock and crop production) are assessed as very high, with limited potential
for risk reduction through adaptation. {22.3.4, 22.4.5, 22.5, Table 22-6}
22
Africa Chapter 22
1205
22.1. Introduction
Africa as a whole is one of the most vulnerable continents due to its
high exposure and low adaptive capacity. Given that climatic and
ecological regions transcend national political boundaries, we have used
the divisions of Africa's Regional Economic Communities (RECs) to
structure the assessment within this chapter.
22.1.1. Structure of the Regions
The African continent (including Madagascar) is the world’s second
largest and most populous continent (1,031,084,000 in 2010) behind
Asia (UN DESA Population Division, 2013). The continent is organized
at the regional level under the African Union (AU).
1
The AU’s Assembly
of Heads of State and Government has officially recognized eight
RECs (Ruppel, 2009). Except for the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic,
2
all AU member states are affiliated with one or more of these RECs.
These RECs include the Arab Maghreb Union (AMU), with 5 countries
in Northern Africa; the Community of Sahel-Saharan States (CEN-SAD),
grouping 27 countries; the Common Market for Eastern and Southern
Africa (COMESA), grouping 19 countries in Eastern and Southern Africa;
the East African Community (EAC), with 5 countries; the Economic
Community of Central African States (ECCAS), with 10 countries; the
Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), with 15
countries; the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD) with
8 countries; and the Southern African Development Community (SADC),
with 15 countries. The regional subdivision of African countries into
RECs is a structure used by the AU and the New Partnership for Africa
(NEPAD).
22.1.2. Major Conclusions from Previous Assessments
22.1.2.1. Regional Special Report and Assessment Reports
M
ajor concluions related to Africa from previous assessments are
summarized in Table 22-1.
22.1.2.2. Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events
and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation
The IPCC Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and
Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation (SREX; IPCC, 2012) is
of particular relevance to the African continent.There is low to medium
confidence in historical extreme temperature and heavy rainfall trends
over most of Africa because of partial lack of data, literature, and
consistency of reported patterns in the literature (Seneviratne et al., 2012).
However, most regions within Africa for which data are available have
recorded an increase in extreme temperatures (Seneviratne et al., 2012).
For projected temperature extreme there is high confidence that heat
waves and warm spell durations will increase, suggesting an increased
persistence of hot days (90th percentile) toward the end of the century
Report Major conclusions Reference
Special Report
on the Regional
Impacts of
Climate Change
Sensitivity of water resources and coastal zones to climatic parameters
Identifi cation of climate change as an additional burden on an already stressful situation
Major challenges for Africa: lack of data on energy sources; uncertainties linked to climate change scenarios (mainly for precipitation); need for integrated
studies; and the necessary links between science and decision makers
Zinyowera
et al. (1997)
Third
Assessment
Report
Impacts of climate change on and vulnerability of six sectors: water resources; food security; natural resources and biodiversity management; health;
human settlements and infrastructure; desertifi cation
Adaptation strategies for each of the sectors
Threats of desertifi cation and droughts to the economy of the continent
Suggestion of adaptation options: mainly linked with better resource management
Identifi cation of research gaps and needs: capacity building; data needs; development of integrated analysis; consideration of literature in other languages
Desanker et
al. (2001)
Fourth
Assessment
Report
Vulnerability of Africa due mainly to its low adaptive capacity
Sources of vulnerability mainly socioeconomic causes (demographic growth, governance, confl icts, etc.)
Impacts of climate change on various sectors: energy, tourism, and coastal zones considered separately
Potential impacts of extreme weather events (droughts and fl oods)
Adaptation costs
Need for mainstreaming climate change adaptation into national development policies
Two case studies:
• Food security: Climate change could affect the three main components of food security.
• Traditional knowledge: African communities have prior experience with climate variability, although this knowledge will not be suffi cient to face climate
change impacts.
Research needs: better knowledge of climate variability; more studies on the impacts of climate change on water resources, energy, biodiversity, tourism,
and health; the links between different sectors (e.g., between agriculture, land availability, and biofuels); developing links with the disaster reduction
community; increasing interdisciplinary analysis of climate change; and strengthening institutional capacities
Boko et al.
(2007)
Table 22-1 | Major conclusions from previous IPCC assessments.
1
Owing to controversies regarding the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Morocco withdrew from the Organization of African Unity (OAU) in protest in 1984 and, since South
Africa’s admittance in 1994, remains the only African nation not within what is now the AU.
2
Although the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic has been a full member of the OAU since 1984 and remains a member of the AU, the Republic is not generally recognized as
a sovereign state and has no representation in the United Nations.
22
Chapter 22 Africa
1206
(Tebaldi et al., 2006; Orlowsky and Seneviratne, 2012). There is high
confidence for projected shorter extreme maximum temperature return
periods across the SRES B1, A1B, and A2 scenarios for the near and far
future as well as a reduction of the number of cold extremes (Seneviratne
et al., 2012). In East and southern Africa, there is mediumconfidence that
droughts will intensify in the 21st century in some seasons, due to
reduced precipitation and/or increased evapotranspiration. There is low
confidence in projected increases of heavy precipitation over most of
Africaexcept over East Africa, where there is ahigh confidence in a
p
rojected increase in heavy precipitation(Seneviratne et al., 2012).
22.2. Observed Climate Trends
and Future Projections
22.2.1. Temperature
22.2.1.1. Observed Trends
Near surface temperatures have increased by 0.5°C or more during the
last 50 to 100 years over most parts of Africa, with minimum temperatures
warming more rapidly than maximum temperatures (Hulme et al., 2001;
Jones and Moberg, 2003; Kruger and Shongwe, 2004; Schreck and
Semazzi, 2004; New et al., 2006; IPCC, 2007; Rosenzweig et al., 2007;
Trenberth et al., 2007; Christy et al., 2009; Collins 2011; Grab and Craparo,
2011; Hoffman et al., 2011; Mohamed, 2011; Stern et al., 2011; Funk et
al., 2012; Nicholson et al., 2013). Near surface air temperature anomalies
in Africa were significantly higher for the period 1995–2010 compared
to the period 1979–1994 (Collins, 2011). Figure 22-1 shows that it is
very likely that mean annual temperature has increased over the past
century over most of the African continent, with the exception of areas
of the interior of the continent, where the data coverage has been
determined to be insufficient to draw conclusions about temperature
trends (Figure 22-1; Box CC-RC). There is strong evidence of an
anthropogenic signal in continent-wide temperature increases in the
20th century (WGI AR5 Section 10.3.1; Stott, 2003; Min and Hense,
2007; Stott et al., 2010, 2011).
In recent decades, North African annual and seasonal observed trends
in mean near surface temperature indicate an overall warming that is
significantly beyond the range of changes due to natural (internal)
variability (Barkhordarian et al., 2012a). During the warm seasons (March-
April-May, June-July-August) an increase in near surface temperature
is shown over northern Algeria and Morocco that is very unlikely due to
natural variability or natural forcing alone (Barkhordarian et al., 2012b).
The region has also experienced positive trends in annual minimum and
maximum temperature (Vizy and Cook, 2012).
Over West Africa and the Sahel near surface temperatures have increased
over the last 50 years. Using indices developed by the Expert Team on
Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI), New et al. (2006) show
the number of cold days and cold nights have decreased and the
number of warm days and warm nights have increased between 1961
and 2000. Many of these trends are statistically significant at the 90%
level, and they find similar trends in extreme temperature indices. Collins
(2011) shows statistically significant warming of between 0.5°C and
0.8°C between 1970 and 2010 over the region using remotely sensed
data with a greater magnitude of change in the latter 20 years of the
period compared to the former.
The equatorial and southern parts of eastern Africa have experienced a
significant increase in temperature since the beginning of the early
1980s (Anyah and Qiu, 2012). Similarly, recent reports from the Famine
Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) indicate that there has
been an increase in seasonal mean temperature in many areas of
Ethiopia, Kenya, South Sudan, and Uganda over the last 50 years (Funk
e
t al., 2011, 2012). In addition, warming of the near surface temperature
and an increase in the frequency of extreme warm events has been
observed for countries bordering the western Indian Ocean between
1961 and 2008 (Vincent et al., 2011b).
In recent decades, most of southern Africa has also experienced upward
trends in annual mean, maximum, and minimum temperature over large
extents of the sub-region during the last half of the 20th century, with
the most significant warming occurring during the last 2 decades
(Zhou et al., 2010; Collins, 2011; Kruger and Sekele, 2012). Minimum
temperatures have increased more rapidly relative to maximum
temperatures over inland southern Africa (New et al., 2006).
22.2.1.2. Projected Trends
Temperatures in Africa are projected to rise faster than the global
average increase during the 21st century (Christensen et al., 2007; Joshi
et al., 2011; Sanderson et al., 2011; James and Washington, 2013).
Global average near surface air temperature is projected to move
beyond 20th century simulated variability by 2069 (±18 years) under
Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5) and by 2047 (±14
years) under RCP8.5 (Mora et al., 2013). However, in the tropics, especially
tropical West Africa, these unprecedented climates are projected to occur
1 to 2 decades earlier than the global average because the relatively
small natural climate variability in this region generates narrow climate
bounds that can be easily surpassed by relatively small climate changes.
Figure 22-1 shows projected temperature increases based on the
Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) ensemble.
Increases in mean annual temperature over all land areas are very likely
in the mid- and late 21st-century periods for RCP2.6 and RCP8.5 (Figure
22-1; Box CC-RC). Ensemble mean changes in mean annual temperature
exceed 2°C above the late 20th-century baseline over most land areas
of the continent in the mid-21st century for RCP8.5, and exceed 4°C
over most land areas in the late 21st century for RCP8.5. Changes in
mean annual temperature for RCP8.5 follow a pattern of larger changes
in magnitude over northern and southern Africa, with (relatively) smaller
changes in magnitude over central Africa. The ensemble mean changes
are less than 2°C above the late 20th century baseline in both the mid-
and late 21st century for RCP2.6.
Over North Africa under the SRES A1B scenario, both annual minimum
and maximum temperature are likely to increase in the future, with
greater increase in minimum temperature (Vizy and Cook, 2012). The
faster increase in minimum temperature is consistent with greater warming
at night, resulting in a decrease in the future extreme temperature range
(Vizy and Cook, 2012). Higher temperature increases are projected
during boreal summer by CMIP5 General Circulation Models (GCMs)
22
Africa Chapter 22
1207
Annual Precipitation
Change
Difference from 19862005 mean
(˚C)
Diagonal Lines
Trend not
statistically
significant
White
Insufficient
data
Solid Color
Strong
agreement
Very strong
agreement
Little or
no change
Gray
Divergent
changes
Solid Color
Significant
trend
Diagonal Lines
White Dots
Annual Temperature Change
late 21st century
mid 21st century
RCP8.5RCP2.6
Trend over 19012012
(˚C over period)
Difference from 19862005 mean (%)
02 46
(mm/year per decade)
Trend in annual precipitation over 1951–2010
–20 0 20 40
5 0525102.52.5 501050 25100
late 21st century
mid 21st century
RCP8.5RCP2.6
Figure 22-1 | Observed and projected changes in annual average temperature and precipitation. (Top panel, left) Map of observed annual average temperature change from
1901–2012, derived from a linear trend. [WGI AR5 Figures SPM.1 and 2.21] (Bottom panel, left) Map of observed annual precipitation change from 1951–2010, derived from a
linear trend. [WGI AR5 Figures SPM.2 and 2.29] For observed temperature and precipitation, trends have been calculated where sufficient data permit a robust estimate (i.e., only
for grid boxes with greater than 70% complete records and more than 20% data availability in the first and last 10% of the time period). Other areas are white. Solid colors
indicate areas where trends are significant at the 10% level. Diagonal lines indicate areas where trends are not significant. (Top and bottom panel, right) CMIP5 multi-model
mean projections of annual average temperature changes and average percent changes in annual mean precipitation for 20462065 and 20812100 under RCP2.6 and 8.5,
relative to 1986–2005. Solid colors indicate areas with very strong agreement, where the multi-model mean change is greater than twice the baseline variability (natural internal
variability in 20-yr means) and ≥90% of models agree on sign of change. Colors with white dots indicate areas with strong agreement, where ≥66% of models show change
greater than the baseline variability and ≥66% of models agree on sign of change. Gray indicates areas with divergent changes, where ≥66% of models show change greater
than the baseline variability, but <66% agree on sign of change. Colors with diagonal lines indicate areas with little or no change, where <66% of models show change greater
than the baseline variability, although there may be significant change at shorter timescales such as seasons, months, or days. Analysis uses model data and methods building
from WGI AR5 Figure SPM.8. See also Annex I of WGI AR5. [Boxes 21-2 and CC-RC]
22
Chapter 22 Africa
1208
H
istorical
Natural RCP2.6
R
CP8.5
Overlap
O
verlap
1960 1980 2000 2020 2040 2060 2080 2100
8
6
4
2
0
–2
1960
°C
1980 2000 2020 2040 2060 2080 2100
T
he East African
Community, the
I
ntergovernmental
Authority on Development,
a
nd Egypt
Near-surface air temperature (land and EEZ)
Precipitation (land)
The Economic Community
of Central African States
The Economic Community
of West African States
The Southern African
Development
Community
The Arab Maghreb Union
Figure 22-2 | Observed and simulated variations in past and projected future annual average temperature over East African Community–Intergovernmental Authority on
Development–Egypt (EAC–IGAD–Egypt), Economic Community of Central African States (ECCAS), Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), Southern African
Development Community (SADC), and the Arab Maghreb Union (AMU). Black lines show various estimates from observational measurements. Shading denotes the 5th to 95th
percentile range of climate model simulations driven with “historical” changes in anthropogenic and natural drivers (63 simulations), historical changes in “natural” drivers only
(34), the RCP2.6 emissions scenario (63), and RCP8.5 (63). Data are anomalies from the 1986–2005 average of the individual observational data (for the observational time
series) or of the corresponding historical all-forcing simulations. Further details are given in Box 21-3.
O